When I first created the Restorative Approach I was steeped in the world of rewards and punishments. My agency at that time used an elaborate system of points, levels, rewards and consequences… as many agencies still do. I heard then, and still hear now, that we can’t just let these kids “get away with” these behaviors. How will they ever learn if they do not experience some kind of punishment when they hurt another person or destroy property?
It was in this climate that I created the concept of learning tasks. I have proposed that we respond to behavior that hurts other by requiring two kinds of tasks, making amends and learning tasks. Making amends are ways for the child to fix what he broke, repair relationships that have been damaged by his actions. Learning tasks are things that would help the child learn skills that will make it more possible for him to respond differently in the future.
I have worked with many examples of this approach as I consult with many agencies that have implemented it. We have considered how to avoid the tasks becoming punishments by another name, and how to react when the child refuses to do the task. We have created lists and suggestions for tasks.
I still believe that the making amends task is very important. Our children have no idea how to fix problems in a relationship. In their experience, doing something wrong has resulted in being “disrupted” and never seeing those people again. They have observed relationship difficulties that lead to violence. They have not experienced relationship problems that have been healed. By assigning them ways to make amends, we teach them a specific process, we decrease shame and build self worth, and we deepen connection. The making amends process also helps the other person who has been hurt. The key is to make the task something that fits the child’s developmental and skill level, involves some effort, and is a token of repair.
I am more skeptical now about my ideas about learning tasks. I still strongly believe we have to teach the children skills. We cannot just tell them to stop doing something without teaching them how to do something different. They are trying to solve a problem with their behavior, and will not be able to do otherwise until they know some other, more positive way to solve that problem. I still think it is worthwhile to consider these questions when deciding how to react to a behavior:
- How do you understand this behavior? What was the child feeling?
- What do we want this child to do when he is feeling this way?
- Based on your understanding of the child, what learning task could help the child learn or practice the skills he would need in order to react differently?
I am wondering now if the questions above are more to guide us as treaters rather than to create learning tasks. They help us remain focused on the adaptive nature of the child’s behavior. They help us consider what treatment experiences we must provide in order for the child to grow and have less need to hurt others.
What do you think? Have learning tasks been helpful in the treatment you provide? Please share your ideas by clicking on “comment” below.